UBIQUITOUS SENSING WITH MEMS-FTIR SPECTROSCOPY. APPLICATIONS IN AGRI-FOOD AND ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING.
Université Gustave Eiffel and CNRS, FRANCE
Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) have been agreed in 2015 by 195 countries of the United Nations (UN), aiming to change the world for better. Since that time, some actions have been taken to address the major concerns on climate change and global anthropogenic pollution. A transition to alternative solutions are being considered nowadays for energy production, transportation, agriculture. The aim is to prevent the consequences on the environment and to ensure long-term availability of fundamental natural resources: clean water, fresh air, food, soil and energy, also looking for more sustainable cities as the consequence of increasing urbanization.
In this talk, we will discuss on how MEMS, Lab-On-Chip and related microsystems and nanometarials, can help in this area. First present recent technological breakthroughs enabling MEMS to perform not only chemical sensing but also chemical analysis in a contactless remote fashion. In particular, we will highlight some recent advances in MEMS optical spectroscopy in the infrared spectral range and their integration into portable spectral sensing devices. We will show how such devices already found a plenty of applications in smart farming, precision agriculture, through the whole supply-chain from-farm-to-fork, in the same time reducing food waste and optimizing the use of soil with reduced impact on the environment. The second part of this talk will address some challenges of 'Sustainable Cities' as an emerging new directions of research with considerable momentum towards ubiquitous sensing. We will review some experiments of environmental monitoring including remediation actions for the purpose of reducing air and water pollutants as well as tools for medical diagnosis.
SENSING WITH SERIAL OR PARALLEL MICROMECHANICAL RESONATORS
Northwestern Polytechnical University, CHINA
The mass-spring-damper resonator is the basic component of current microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) like the transistor for integrated circuits (IC). It is implemented in different forms such as beam, diaphragm, rings, etc. Then, the amplitude, frequency or even phase change of the resonator is typically used to perform sensing applications. It is very interesting that the resonators are usually employed in the form of one degree-of-freedom (1-DoF) no matter how complex the device is. However, we must notice that under this typical 1-DoF sensing paradigm several kinds of MEMS sensors have already technically reached the accuracy limits although the markets are still booming. In the computer industry, the multi-core CPU were successfully used to break the bottlenecks of the computation limits. So, can the micromechanical resonators be serially or parallelly connected to form a network of the multi-DoF resonator system for improving the performance of the MEMS sensors? This talk will present and summarize the basic theories and applications for serial and parallel connections of micromechanical resonators for high-sensitivity sensing. For the serial connection theory, the mode-localized sensing is especially introduced. Several sensors including accelerometers, electrometers, magnetometers, and ampere meters are presented.
NEURAL STIMULATION: NEW DESIGNS FOR ENHANCED CONTROL
Shelley I. Fried
Harvard Medical School, USA
QUANTUM CONTROL OF SPIN AND ORBITAL STATES WITH A DIAMOND MEMS RESONATOR
Gregory D. Fuchs
Cornell University, USA
I will describe our experiments to drive spin and orbital resonance of diamond nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers using the gigahertz-frequency strain oscillations produced within a diamond bulk acoustic resonator. Strain-based coupling between a resonator and a defect center takes advantage of intrinsic and reproducible coupling mechanisms while maintaining compatibility with conventional magnetic and optical techniques, thus providing new functionality for quantum-enhanced sensing and quantum information processing. Using a spin-strain interaction at room temperature, we demonstrate coherent spin control over both double quantum (Δm=±2) and single quantum (Δm=±1) transitions. This MEMS-driven quantum control enables opportunities for quantum sensing and the opportunity to extend spin coherence. At cryogenic temperatures, we use orbital-strain interactions driven by a diamond acoustic resonator to study multi-phonon orbital resonance of a single NV center. Additionally, I'll describe our efforts to enhance electron-phonon coupling by engineering MEMS resonators with small modal volumes based a semi-confocal acoustic cavity.
DRAWING FEATURE MAPS OF MOLECULAR COMPUTATION
University of Tokyo, JAPAN
A Droplet Microfluidic Platform is developed for massively-parallel tests to draw feature maps of molecular computation with several ten thousands of different reaction conditions.
This enables precise tuning and design of molecular systems to be used for specific applications.
Two types of applications based on "PEN DNA Toolbox" developed inn our group, molecular-based cancer diagnostics and stimuli-responsive DNA hydrogels, are presented in this talk.
SILICON NANOMECHANICAL RESONATORS AND LARGE SCALE OPTOMECHANICS FOR SENSING
CEA LETI has extensive expertise in silicon nanomechanical resonators for sensing, culminating with the first start-up for chemical sensing with NEMS in 2012. We have also more recently developed a nanomechanical resonator-based mass spectrometry system and performed the first mass analysis of biological particles such as viruses. These developments have required large scale technological efforts, fundamental studies like non-linearities and noise processes at the nanoscale, as well as applied demonstrations. In the last 7 years, LETI has developed a large scale platform for optomechanical resonators, with the objective to make their use as mainstream as their electrical counterparts. Sensing demonstrations will be presented.
ORGAN CHIP MODELS OF HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY
KTH Royal Institute of Technology, SWEDEN
AUTOMOTIVE SEMICONDUCTORS IN THE CASE ERA
MIRISE Technologies Corporation, JAPAN
Automotive electronics have been evolving and creating new control systems to realize safer and more eco-friendly vehicles. Automobile is under paradigm shift toward CASE, Connected, Autonomous, Shared, Electrification. In any directions, car electronics including MEMS are essential for the shift. MEMS technologies, along with the packaging, electronic circuit, and software technologies, will become more important in the future vehicle equipped with many advanced sensors.
MIRISE technologies is R&D company for next-generation mobility semiconductors. By combining Toyota's years of mobility-focused expertise and DENSO's long history of in-vehicle-focused expertise, MIRISE Technologies is working toward the early development of the next generation semiconductors. These semiconductors will be the key to technological innovation in electric vehicles and self-driving vehicles, from both a car and a component perspective.
In the presentation, semiconductor use in CASE mobility, future trend of automobiles and activities in MIRISE technologies will be explained.
SMART CARBON SCAFFOLDS FOR ELECTROCHEMICAL MONITORING OF CELL CULTURES
Stephan Sylvest Keller
Technical University of Denmark (DTU), DENMARK
In bioelectrochemical applications, cells are typically incubated on 2D electrodes. The major limitation of this approach is that planar electrode geometry poorly mimics the natural environment of the cells. 3D polymer scaffolds have been developed to provide a more realistic environment for the cells but these structures usually lack integrated sensor functionality to perform in situ measurements in the 3D cell culture. Here, we address these limitations and demonstrate the in situ electrochemical analysis of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in a 3D bone tissue model with integrated electrochemical sensing using 3D pyrolytic carbon microelectrodes. Furthermore, we integrate pyrolytic carbon electrodes on an optical fibre to obtain a leaky optoelectrical fibre (LOEF). With the LOEF serving as a smart scaffold, we demonstrate the combined optical stimulation of optogenetially modified human neural stem cells (hNSC) and electrochemical recording of the resulting release of the neurotransmitter dopamine.
DEMOCRATIZING DIGITAL MICROFLUIDICS
Chang-Jin "CJ" Kim
University of California, Los Angeles, USA
As a subset of microfluidics, digital microfluidics handles fluids as small discrete entities (e.g., droplets) by actuating them individually. The choice of actuation mechanism to handle droplets has been electrowetting, especially in the form of electrowetting-on-dielectric (EWOD) developed in early 2000s. Because of its elegantly simple platform (no channel, pump or valve needed), EWOD digital microfluidics has been attracting high research interest and led to a series of commercial products in recent years. However, the number of labs utilizing digital microfluidics is still relatively small due to the difficulties fabricating and operating EWOD devices. To open the bottlenecks, we have been striving to establish a cloud-based ecosystem, where digital microfluidics would be accessible to a wide range of end users regardless of their background. The goal is to allow the end users (researchers, entrepreneurs, students, and hobbyists alike) to focus on their own ideas and applications without worrying about the engineering side of the technology. Presented will be the approach, progress, and the status and direction of the endeavor as well as the future outlook.
DEVELOPMENT OF ADVANCED DYNAMIC ANGIO MODEL (ADAM) SIMULATOR: ENABLING A REALISTIC SIMULATION OF ENDOVASCULAR INTERVENTION
Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), KOREA
In this talk, we will discuss an effective strategy to design and fabricate 3D vascular replicas composed of elastomer - hydrogel skin multilayers mimicking the geometries and mechanical properties of blood vessels, enabling a realistic simulation of endovascular intervention and more.
TRANSFORMATION OF 2D PLANES INTO 3D SOFT STRUCTURES WITH ELECTRICAL FUNCTIONS
Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology (DGIST), KOREA
3D structures composed of flexible and soft materials have been in demand for implantable biomedical devices. However, the fabrication of 3D structures using MEMS techniques has limitations in terms of the materials and the scale of the structures. We developed a novel technique to selectively bond polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and parylene-C by plasma treatment, with which 2D structures fabricated using conventional MEMS techniques are transformed into 3D structures by the inflation of selectively non-bonded patterns. We demonstrated various soft and flexible 3D structures with embedded electrical functions for biomedical applications.
SPECTROCHIP FOR COVID-19 PANDEMIC
National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, TAIWAN
Spectroscopic analysis has been widely used in medical research and healthcare testing including trace chemical, biochemical and immunoassay. We have developed a chip based spectrometer - SpectroChip based on novel MEMS technology. It has a spectral resolution of 5 nm with a spectral range of 350 1100 nm and a signal to noise ratio of 300:1. We have built a rapid test reader for COVID-19 antibody and antigen detection using our SpectroChip . Our SpectroChip technology will play a key role not only in disease control for COVID-19 pandemic but also in telemedicine and homecare health monitoring.
PUTTING ELECTRONICS TO WORK: HIGH-FREQUENCY DETECTION WITH CMOS NANOCAPACITOR ARRAYS
Serge J.G. Lemay
University of Twente, THE NETHERLANDS
MICROMECHANICAL VIBRO-IMPACT RESONATOR-ENABLED SENSING APPLICATIONS
National Taiwan University, TAIWAN
Vibro-impact systems that couple the ordinary vibration system with non-smooth contact dynamics exist in numerous engineering applications especially at macroscopic scales from pile driving machines to percussion hammers to ultrasonic machining, all of which utilize impact for enabling the capabilities or enhancing the effectiveness.
In this talk, I will present our recent work on two unique applications based on micromechanical vibro-impact resonators--a zero quiescent-power OOK/FSK communication receiver using CMOS-MEMS vibro-impact resonant switches, and an on-chip surface condition monitoring technique based on the frequency responses of vibro-impact resonators.
SOFT MICROFLUIDIC WEARABLE SENSORS FOR BIOMEDICAL APPLICATIONS
Chwee Teck "CT" Lim
National University of Singapore, SINGAPORE
The future of healthcare wearables lies in continual sensing in an unobtrusive manner. Tactile sensing is especially important to capture mechanotransduced signals arising from the body, or as a result of interactions with the external environment. However, conventional sensors are rigid, stiff and obstrusive. Therefore, one of the key objectives is to confer flexibility and stretchability to our sensing elements, while maintaining its sensitivity and robustness. Here, we develop a novel liquid-based microfluidic and microtubular sensors that possess high flexibility, durability, and sensitivity. The sensors comprise a soft elastomer-based microfluidic template encapsulating a conductive liquid which serves as the active sensing element of the device. This sensor is capable of distinguishing and quantifying the various user-applied mechanical forces it is subjected to. We demonstrated healthcare applications of our sensors in rehabilitation monitoring, artificial sensing and disease tracking such as that for diabetic patients. Overall, our work highlights the potential of the liquid-based microfluidic sensing platforms in a wide range of healthcare applications and further facilitates the exploration and realization of functional liquid-state device technology.
NANOSTRUCTURED BIOSENSORS AND INTEGRATED SYSTEMS FOR HEALTH MONITORING
Southern University of Science and Technology, CHINA
Electrochemical sensors attract tremendous research interest in recent years, mainly due to the rapidly expanding market of wearable and portable devices for applications in clinical diagnosis and physiological monitoring. This talk will mainly share our recent works on nanostructured biosensors with desired sensitivity and stability. Meanwhile, scalable and printable approaches were developed to integrate high performance electrochemical devices into monolithically integrated self-powered systems for healthcare monitoring applications.
MEMS TOOLS FOR ACCELERATING MATERIALS SCIENCE
Ruhr Universität, Bochum (RUB), GERMANY
This contribution will give an overview of MEMS used in materials science for purposes such as accelerating experiments and enabling scientific discoveries.
MEMS can be used for (high-throughput) materials processing of nanoscale materials, e.g. using micro-hotplates or micro gradient heaters.
Structural and functional properties of thin films can be investigated with micromachined cantilever arrays.
Furthermore, MEMS enable materials characterisation and processing on the atomic scale, e.g. in the transmission electron microscope and in atom probe tomography.
Using this approach, new thin film materials for MEMS can be efficiently developed. The challenges and future opportunities of MEMS in materials science will be discussed.
Delft University of Technology (TU Delft), THE NETHERLANDS
Stemming from the convergence of tissue engineering and microfluidics, organ-on-chip technology can reproduce realistic in vivo-like dynamic and stimulative microphysiological environments for tissues in vitro. As such, it may hold the key to bridge the current translational gap in drug development, and possibly enable personalized drug testing.
In my talk, I will introduce the biotechnological convergence at the root of organ-on-chip technology, and outline research tracks under development in my group at TU Delft in two main sub-topics: innovative microelectromechanical organs-on-chip able to stimulate and sense tissue activity, and their embedding within advanced platforms for pre-clinical research. I will conclude with remarks on the role of open technology platforms for the broader establishment and acceptance of organs-on-chip technology in research and drug development.
SMART 3D VOLUMETRIC PRINTING
École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), SWITZERLAND
NANOGENERATORS AND SELF-POWERED MICRODEVICES APPLIED TO WIRELESS ELECTRICAL STIMULATION AT CELL LEVEL
Spanish National Research Council (CSIC), SPAIN
HIGH THROUGHPUT SIZE CONTROLLED MICRODROPLET GENERATION
Waseda University, JAPAN
Microdroplets from tens of micron to single micron in diameter generated by passive and active droplet break up will be described.
SILK-DRIVE: PROTEIN-BASED HARD DRIVE USING NEAR-FIELD NANO-OPTICS
Tiger H. Tao
Chinese Academy of Science (CAS), CHINA
We present the use of silk film as a biofunctional medium for data storage. As a rewritable optical storage medium, the silk drive can store digital and biological information with a capacity of ~64 GB per square inch and exhibits long-term stability under various harsh conditions.
NATURE-INSPIRED SURFACES FOR WATER-ENERGY NEXUS
City University of Hong Kong, CHINA
Water is the origin of life and energy. In spite of its ubiquity and seemingly simplicity, the water is probably the least understood matter in the world. The phase transition, transport, and manipulation of water, normally spanning different time and length scales, constitute the basic paradigm of numerous biological systems and industrial processes such as thermal management, energy, agriculture, and healthcare. Over the past decade, the advances in manufacturing and visualization provide new dimensions in our fundamental and controlling of interfacial and transport phenomena of water, especially on textured surfaces and under complicated working environments.
The main aim of this talk is to discuss recent innovations at the surfaces and interfaces to address one of the most important challenges facing us today, i.e., water-energy nexus. In particular, I will highlight how the rational design and control of topological structures enables us to fundamentally change the liquid-solid interaction and achieve high energy harvesting efficiency from various forms of water ( fog, droplet, tidal...). In particular, by designing the field-effect-transistor-like architecture, we can light up 100 LEDs even from one single droplet.
ULTRA-HIGH-Q NANOMECHANICS THROUGH DISSIPATION DILUTION: TRENDS AND PERSPECTIVES
University of Arizona, USA
Strained nanomechanical resonators have recently achieved quality factors of 1 billion through the phenomenon of dissipation dilution. Remarkably, the potential of these devices seems unexhausted, exhibiting a scaling law of roughly one order of magnitude (in Q factor) every three years. This paper reviews advances which led to this point, including phononic crystal "soft-clamping," strain engineering, and a trend towards centimeter-scale devices with extreme aspect ratios. Recent trends include investigation of strained crystalline thin films, fractal-patterned supports, and machine-learning-optimized supports. New possibilities emerging from these advances range from cavity free quantum optomechanics to ultra-sensitive accelerometry.
RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT ON MEMS BASED ELECTRIC FIELD SENSOR
Chinese Academy of Science (CAS), CHINA
Electric field sensors are widely used in many fields. MEMS based electric field sensor has the advantages of small size, light weight and low power consumption. It can not only be used to upgrade the traditional electric field detection equipment, but also meet the needs for a lot of new applications.
This presentation will review briefly the research and development of MEMS based electric field sensors, report the work and progress of the author's team, provide examples of practical applications, outlook the future work and potential new applications, and discuss about the difficulties and problems.
EMERGING FUNCTIONS OF ELECTRICALLY-INDUCED BUBBLES AND ITS BIOMEDICAL APPLICATIONS
Kyushu University, JAPAN
This talk presents a mechanism and applications of our developed electrically-induced bubbles. The novelties is that simultaneous local reagent injection and pore formation to the of variety of hardness using bubble cavitation and plasma cavitation. Cavitation and plasma discharge were generated by pulse discharge of microelectrode having special tip structure.
Wide dynamic range injection was achieved by the synergistic effect of cavitation of bubble and plasma ablation. The novelty of the technique enables to process not only conductive material but also non-conductive material. Also, the reducing power of hydrogen radical by plasma discharge and the micro-jet caused by collapse of microbubble, and aim at developing a metallization method which does not need a complicated process such as surface treatment.
This simultaneous etching and deposition methods provide novel printing method of electrical circuit on wide range of material and contribute to not only bio-medical engineering but also the device fabrications.
INTERROGATION AND CHARGING OF EMBEDDED SENSORS BY AUTONOMOUS VEHICLES
Eric M. Yeatman
Imperial College London, UK
This talk presents a concept and experimental results for end-to-end energy-autonomous sensor systems using unmanned aerial vehicles (drones) as agents for power delivery to and data gathering from sensing devices. Such systems are particularly useful for delay tolerant monitoring scenarios in which the sensing devices are deployed in remote or harsh conditions, often with sparse connectivity, long life and high reliability requirements. Results presented will include miniaturisation of wireless charging hardware for drones of low payload capacity, methods for navigation to and alignment with sensors for efficient power transfer, and some data transfer aspects.